【Android】【錄音】Android錄音--AudioRecord、MediaRecorder


    Android提供了兩個API用於實現錄音功能:android.media.AudioRecord、android.media.MediaRecorder。

    網上有很多談論這兩個類的資料。現在大致總結下:

1、AudioRecord

主要是實現邊錄邊播(AudioRecord+AudioTrack)以及對音頻的實時處理(如會說話的湯姆貓、語音)

優點:語音的實時處理,可以用代碼實現各種音頻的封裝

缺點:輸出是PCM語音數據,如果保存成音頻文件,是不能夠被播放器播放的,所以必須先寫代碼實現數據編碼以及壓縮

示例:

使用AudioRecord類錄音,並實現WAV格式封裝。錄音20s,輸出的音頻文件大概為3.5M左右(已寫測試代碼)

2、MediaRecorder

已經集成了錄音、編碼、壓縮等,支持少量的錄音音頻格式,大概有.aac(API = 16) .amr .3gp

優點:大部分以及集成,直接調用相關接口即可,代碼量小

缺點:無法實時處理音頻;輸出的音頻格式不是很多,例如沒有輸出mp3格式文件

示例:

使用MediaRecorder類錄音,輸出amr格式文件。錄音20s,輸出的音頻文件大概為33K(已寫測試代碼)

3、音頻格式比較

WAV格式:錄音質量高,但是壓縮率小,文件大

AAC格式:相對於mp3,AAC格式的音質更佳,文件更小;有損壓縮;一般蘋果或者Android SDK4.1.2(API 16)及以上版本支持播放

AMR格式:壓縮比比較大,但相對其他的壓縮格式質量比較差,多用於人聲,通話錄音

至於常用的mp3格式,使用MediaRecorder沒有該視頻格式輸出。一些人的做法是使用AudioRecord錄音,然后編碼成wav格式,再轉換成mp3格式

 

    再貼上一些測試工程。

功能描述:

1、點擊“錄音WAV文件”,開始錄音。錄音完成后,生成文件/sdcard/FinalAudio.wav

2、點擊“錄音AMR文件”,開始錄音。錄音完成后,生成文件/sdcard/FinalAudio.amr

3、點擊“停止錄音”,停止錄音,並顯示錄音輸出文件以及該文件大小。

 

大致代碼如下:

1、AudioRecord錄音,封裝成WAV格式

package com.example.audiorecordtest;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;

import android.media.AudioFormat;
import android.media.AudioRecord;

public class AudioRecordFunc {
// 緩沖區字節大小
private int bufferSizeInBytes = 0;

//AudioName裸音頻數據文件 ,麥克風
private String AudioName = "";

//NewAudioName可播放的音頻文件
private String NewAudioName = "";

private AudioRecord audioRecord;
private boolean isRecord = false;// 設置正在錄制的狀態


private static AudioRecordFunc mInstance;

private AudioRecordFunc(){

}

public synchronized static AudioRecordFunc getInstance()
{
if(mInstance == null)
mInstance = new AudioRecordFunc();
return mInstance;
}

public int startRecordAndFile() {
//判斷是否有外部存儲設備sdcard
if(AudioFileFunc.isSdcardExit())
{
if(isRecord)
{
return ErrorCode.E_STATE_RECODING;
}
else
{
if(audioRecord == null)
creatAudioRecord();

audioRecord.startRecording();
// 讓錄制狀態為true
isRecord = true;
// 開啟音頻文件寫入線程
new Thread(new AudioRecordThread()).start();

return ErrorCode.SUCCESS;
}

}
else
{
return ErrorCode.E_NOSDCARD;
}

}

public void stopRecordAndFile() {
close();
}


public long getRecordFileSize(){
return AudioFileFunc.getFileSize(NewAudioName);
}


private void close() {
if (audioRecord != null) {
System.out.println("stopRecord");
isRecord = false;//停止文件寫入
audioRecord.stop();
audioRecord.release();//釋放資源
audioRecord = null;
}
}


private void creatAudioRecord() {
// 獲取音頻文件路徑
AudioName = AudioFileFunc.getRawFilePath();
NewAudioName = AudioFileFunc.getWavFilePath();

// 獲得緩沖區字節大小
bufferSizeInBytes = AudioRecord.getMinBufferSize(AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE,
AudioFormat.CHANNEL_IN_STEREO, AudioFormat.ENCODING_PCM_16BIT);

// 創建AudioRecord對象
audioRecord = new AudioRecord(AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_INPUT, AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE,
AudioFormat.CHANNEL_IN_STEREO, AudioFormat.ENCODING_PCM_16BIT, bufferSizeInBytes);
}


class AudioRecordThread implements Runnable {
@Override
public void run() {
writeDateTOFile();//往文件中寫入裸數據
copyWaveFile(AudioName, NewAudioName);//給裸數據加上頭文件
}
}

/**
* 這里將數據寫入文件,但是並不能播放,因為AudioRecord獲得的音頻是原始的裸音頻,
* 如果需要播放就必須加入一些格式或者編碼的頭信息。但是這樣的好處就是你可以對音頻的 裸數據進行處理,比如你要做一個愛說話的TOM
* 貓在這里就進行音頻的處理,然后重新封裝 所以說這樣得到的音頻比較容易做一些音頻的處理。
*/
private void writeDateTOFile() {
// new一個byte數組用來存一些字節數據,大小為緩沖區大小
byte[] audiodata = new byte[bufferSizeInBytes];
FileOutputStream fos = null;
int readsize = 0;
try {
File file = new File(AudioName);
if (file.exists()) {
file.delete();
}
fos = new FileOutputStream(file);// 建立一個可存取字節的文件
} catch (Exception e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
while (isRecord == true) {
readsize = audioRecord.read(audiodata, 0, bufferSizeInBytes);
if (AudioRecord.ERROR_INVALID_OPERATION != readsize && fos!=null) {
try {
fos.write(audiodata);
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
}
try {
if(fos != null)
fos.close();// 關閉寫入流
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}

// 這里得到可播放的音頻文件
private void copyWaveFile(String inFilename, String outFilename) {
FileInputStream in = null;
FileOutputStream out = null;
long totalAudioLen = 0;
long totalDataLen = totalAudioLen + 36;
long longSampleRate = AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE;
int channels = 2;
long byteRate = 16 * AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE * channels / 8;
byte[] data = new byte[bufferSizeInBytes];
try {
in = new FileInputStream(inFilename);
out = new FileOutputStream(outFilename);
totalAudioLen = in.getChannel().size();
totalDataLen = totalAudioLen + 36;
WriteWaveFileHeader(out, totalAudioLen, totalDataLen,
longSampleRate, channels, byteRate);
while (in.read(data) != -1) {
out.write(data);
}
in.close();
out.close();
} catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}

/**
* 這里提供一個頭信息。插入這些信息就可以得到可以播放的文件。
* 為我為啥插入這44個字節,這個還真沒深入研究,不過你隨便打開一個wav
* 音頻的文件,可以發現前面的頭文件可以說基本一樣哦。每種格式的文件都有
* 自己特有的頭文件。
*/
private void WriteWaveFileHeader(FileOutputStream out, long totalAudioLen,
long totalDataLen, long longSampleRate, int channels, long byteRate)
throws IOException {
byte[] header = new byte[44];
header[0] = 'R'; // RIFF/WAVE header
header[1] = 'I';
header[2] = 'F';
header[3] = 'F';
header[4] = (byte) (totalDataLen & 0xff);
header[5] = (byte) ((totalDataLen >> 8) & 0xff);
header[6] = (byte) ((totalDataLen >> 16) & 0xff);
header[7] = (byte) ((totalDataLen >> 24) & 0xff);
header[8] = 'W';
header[9] = 'A';
header[10] = 'V';
header[11] = 'E';
header[12] = 'f'; // 'fmt ' chunk
header[13] = 'm';
header[14] = 't';
header[15] = ' ';
header[16] = 16; // 4 bytes: size of 'fmt ' chunk
header[17] = 0;
header[18] = 0;
header[19] = 0;
header[20] = 1; // format = 1
header[21] = 0;
header[22] = (byte) channels;
header[23] = 0;
header[24] = (byte) (longSampleRate & 0xff);
header[25] = (byte) ((longSampleRate >> 8) & 0xff);
header[26] = (byte) ((longSampleRate >> 16) & 0xff);
header[27] = (byte) ((longSampleRate >> 24) & 0xff);
header[28] = (byte) (byteRate & 0xff);
header[29] = (byte) ((byteRate >> 8) & 0xff);
header[30] = (byte) ((byteRate >> 16) & 0xff);
header[31] = (byte) ((byteRate >> 24) & 0xff);
header[32] = (byte) (2 * 16 / 8); // block align
header[33] = 0;
header[34] = 16; // bits per sample
header[35] = 0;
header[36] = 'd';
header[37] = 'a';
header[38] = 't';
header[39] = 'a';
header[40] = (byte) (totalAudioLen & 0xff);
header[41] = (byte) ((totalAudioLen >> 8) & 0xff);
header[42] = (byte) ((totalAudioLen >> 16) & 0xff);
header[43] = (byte) ((totalAudioLen >> 24) & 0xff);
out.write(header, 0, 44);
}
}

 

2、MediaRecorder錄音,輸出amr格式音頻

package com.example.audiorecordtest;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.IOException;

import android.media.MediaRecorder;

public class MediaRecordFunc {
private boolean isRecord = false;

private MediaRecorder mMediaRecorder;
private MediaRecordFunc(){
}

private static MediaRecordFunc mInstance;
public synchronized static MediaRecordFunc getInstance(){
if(mInstance == null)
mInstance = new MediaRecordFunc();
return mInstance;
}

public int startRecordAndFile(){
//判斷是否有外部存儲設備sdcard
if(AudioFileFunc.isSdcardExit())
{
if(isRecord)
{
return ErrorCode.E_STATE_RECODING;
}
else
{
if(mMediaRecorder == null)
createMediaRecord();

try{
mMediaRecorder.prepare();
mMediaRecorder.start();
// 讓錄制狀態為true
isRecord = true;
return ErrorCode.SUCCESS;
}catch(IOException ex){
ex.printStackTrace();
return ErrorCode.E_UNKOWN;
}
}

}
else
{
return ErrorCode.E_NOSDCARD;
}
}


public void stopRecordAndFile(){
close();
}

public long getRecordFileSize(){
return AudioFileFunc.getFileSize(AudioFileFunc.getAMRFilePath());
}


private void createMediaRecord(){
/* ①Initial:實例化MediaRecorder對象 */
mMediaRecorder = new MediaRecorder();

/* setAudioSource/setVedioSource*/
mMediaRecorder.setAudioSource(AudioFileFunc.AUDIO_INPUT);//設置麥克風

/* 設置輸出文件的格式:THREE_GPP/MPEG-4/RAW_AMR/Default
* THREE_GPP(3gp格式,H263視頻/ARM音頻編碼)、MPEG-4、RAW_AMR(只支持音頻且音頻編碼要求為AMR_NB)
*/
mMediaRecorder.setOutputFormat(MediaRecorder.OutputFormat.DEFAULT);

/* 設置音頻文件的編碼:AAC/AMR_NB/AMR_MB/Default */
mMediaRecorder.setAudioEncoder(MediaRecorder.AudioEncoder.DEFAULT);

/* 設置輸出文件的路徑 */
File file = new File(AudioFileFunc.getAMRFilePath());
if (file.exists()) {
file.delete();
}
mMediaRecorder.setOutputFile(AudioFileFunc.getAMRFilePath());
}


private void close(){
if (mMediaRecorder != null) {
System.out.println("stopRecord");
isRecord = false;
mMediaRecorder.stop();
mMediaRecorder.release();
mMediaRecorder = null;
}
}
}
 

3、其他文件

AudioFileFunc.java

package com.example.audiorecordtest;

import java.io.File;

import android.media.MediaRecorder;
import android.os.Environment;

public class AudioFileFunc {
//音頻輸入-麥克風
public final static int AUDIO_INPUT = MediaRecorder.AudioSource.MIC;

//采用頻率
//44100是目前的標准,但是某些設備仍然支持22050,16000,11025
public final static int AUDIO_SAMPLE_RATE = 44100; //44.1KHz,普遍使用的頻率
//錄音輸出文件
private final static String AUDIO_RAW_FILENAME = "RawAudio.raw";
private final static String AUDIO_WAV_FILENAME = "FinalAudio.wav";
public final static String AUDIO_AMR_FILENAME = "FinalAudio.amr";

/**
* 判斷是否有外部存儲設備sdcard
* @return true | false
*/
public static boolean isSdcardExit(){
if (Environment.getExternalStorageState().equals(android.os.Environment.MEDIA_MOUNTED))
return true;
else
return false;
}

/**
* 獲取麥克風輸入的原始音頻流文件路徑
* @return
*/
public static String getRawFilePath(){
String mAudioRawPath = "";
if(isSdcardExit()){
String fileBasePath = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory().getAbsolutePath();
mAudioRawPath = fileBasePath+"/"+AUDIO_RAW_FILENAME;
}

return mAudioRawPath;
}

/**
* 獲取編碼后的WAV格式音頻文件路徑
* @return
*/
public static String getWavFilePath(){
String mAudioWavPath = "";
if(isSdcardExit()){
String fileBasePath = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory().getAbsolutePath();
mAudioWavPath = fileBasePath+"/"+AUDIO_WAV_FILENAME;
}
return mAudioWavPath;
}


/**
* 獲取編碼后的AMR格式音頻文件路徑
* @return
*/
public static String getAMRFilePath(){
String mAudioAMRPath = "";
if(isSdcardExit()){
String fileBasePath = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory().getAbsolutePath();
mAudioAMRPath = fileBasePath+"/"+AUDIO_AMR_FILENAME;
}
return mAudioAMRPath;
}


/**
* 獲取文件大小
* @param path,文件的絕對路徑
* @return
*/
public static long getFileSize(String path){
File mFile = new File(path);
if(!mFile.exists())
return -1;
return mFile.length();
}

}

 

4、其他文件

ErrorCode.java

package com.example.audiorecordtest;

import android.content.Context;
import android.content.res.Resources.NotFoundException;

public class ErrorCode {
public final static int SUCCESS = 1000;
public final static int E_NOSDCARD = 1001;
public final static int E_STATE_RECODING = 1002;
public final static int E_UNKOWN = 1003;


public static String getErrorInfo(Context vContext, int vType) throws NotFoundException
{
switch(vType)
{
case SUCCESS:
return "success";
case E_NOSDCARD:
return vContext.getResources().getString(R.string.error_no_sdcard);
case E_STATE_RECODING:
return vContext.getResources().getString(R.string.error_state_record);
case E_UNKOWN:
default:
return vContext.getResources().getString(R.string.error_unknown);

}
}

}

 

5、string.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>

<string name="app_name">AudioRecordTest</string>
<string name="hello_world">測試AudioRecord,實現錄音功能</string>
<string name="menu_settings">Settings</string>
<string name="view_record_wav">錄音WAV文件</string>
<string name="view_record_amr">錄音AMR文件</string>
<string name="view_stop">停止錄音</string>

<string name="error_no_sdcard">沒有SD卡,無法存儲錄音數據</string>
<string name="error_state_record">正在錄音中,請先停止錄音</string>
<string name="error_unknown">無法識別的錯誤</string>

</resources>

 

6、主程序MainActivity

package com.example.audiorecordtest; 

import android.app.Activity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.os.Message;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.TextView;

public class MainActivity extends Activity {
private final static int FLAG_WAV = 0;
private final static int FLAG_AMR = 1;
private int mState = -1; //-1:沒再錄制,0:錄制wav,1:錄制amr
private Button btn_record_wav;
private Button btn_record_amr;
private Button btn_stop;
private TextView txt;
private UIHandler uiHandler;
private UIThread uiThread;

@Override
protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
findViewByIds();
setListeners();
init();
}

@Override
public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
// Inflate the menu; this adds items to the action bar if it is present.
getMenuInflater().inflate(R.menu.activity_main, menu);
return true;
}
private void findViewByIds(){
btn_record_wav = (Button)this.findViewById(R.id.btn_record_wav);
btn_record_amr = (Button)this.findViewById(R.id.btn_record_amr);
btn_stop = (Button)this.findViewById(R.id.btn_stop);
txt = (TextView)this.findViewById(R.id.text);
}
private void setListeners(){
btn_record_wav.setOnClickListener(btn_record_wav_clickListener);
btn_record_amr.setOnClickListener(btn_record_amr_clickListener);
btn_stop.setOnClickListener(btn_stop_clickListener);
}
private void init(){
uiHandler = new UIHandler();
}
private Button.OnClickListener btn_record_wav_clickListener = new Button.OnClickListener(){
public void onClick(View v){
record(FLAG_WAV);
}
};
private Button.OnClickListener btn_record_amr_clickListener = new Button.OnClickListener(){
public void onClick(View v){
record(FLAG_AMR);
}
};
private Button.OnClickListener btn_stop_clickListener = new Button.OnClickListener(){
public void onClick(View v){
stop();
}
};
/**
* 開始錄音
* @param mFlag,0:錄制wav格式,1:錄音amr格式
*/
private void record(int mFlag){
if(mState != -1){
Message msg = new Message();
Bundle b = new Bundle();// 存放數據
b.putInt("cmd",CMD_RECORDFAIL);
b.putInt("msg", ErrorCode.E_STATE_RECODING);
msg.setData(b);

uiHandler.sendMessage(msg); // 向Handler發送消息,更新UI
return;
}
int mResult = -1;
switch(mFlag){
case FLAG_WAV:
AudioRecordFunc mRecord_1 = AudioRecordFunc.getInstance();
mResult = mRecord_1.startRecordAndFile();
break;
case FLAG_AMR:
MediaRecordFunc mRecord_2 = MediaRecordFunc.getInstance();
mResult = mRecord_2.startRecordAndFile();
break;
}
if(mResult == ErrorCode.SUCCESS){
uiThread = new UIThread();
new Thread(uiThread).start();
mState = mFlag;
}else{
Message msg = new Message();
Bundle b = new Bundle();// 存放數據
b.putInt("cmd",CMD_RECORDFAIL);
b.putInt("msg", mResult);
msg.setData(b);

uiHandler.sendMessage(msg); // 向Handler發送消息,更新UI
}
}
/**
* 停止錄音
*/
private void stop(){
if(mState != -1){
switch(mState){
case FLAG_WAV:
AudioRecordFunc mRecord_1 = AudioRecordFunc.getInstance();
mRecord_1.stopRecordAndFile();
break;
case FLAG_AMR:
MediaRecordFunc mRecord_2 = MediaRecordFunc.getInstance();
mRecord_2.stopRecordAndFile();
break;
}
if(uiThread != null){
uiThread.stopThread();
}
if(uiHandler != null)
uiHandler.removeCallbacks(uiThread);
Message msg = new Message();
Bundle b = new Bundle();// 存放數據
b.putInt("cmd",CMD_STOP);
b.putInt("msg", mState);
msg.setData(b);
uiHandler.sendMessageDelayed(msg,1000); // 向Handler發送消息,更新UI
mState = -1;
}
}
private final static int CMD_RECORDING_TIME = 2000;
private final static int CMD_RECORDFAIL = 2001;
private final static int CMD_STOP = 2002;
class UIHandler extends Handler{
public UIHandler() {
}
@Override
public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
Log.d("MyHandler", "handleMessage......");
super.handleMessage(msg);
Bundle b = msg.getData();
int vCmd = b.getInt("cmd");
switch(vCmd)
{
case CMD_RECORDING_TIME:
int vTime = b.getInt("msg");
MainActivity.this.txt.setText("正在錄音中,已錄制:"+vTime+" s");
break;
case CMD_RECORDFAIL:
int vErrorCode = b.getInt("msg");
String vMsg = ErrorCode.getErrorInfo(MainActivity.this, vErrorCode);
MainActivity.this.txt.setText("錄音失敗:"+vMsg);
break;
case CMD_STOP:
int vFileType = b.getInt("msg");
switch(vFileType){
case FLAG_WAV:
AudioRecordFunc mRecord_1 = AudioRecordFunc.getInstance();
long mSize = mRecord_1.getRecordFileSize();
MainActivity.this.txt.setText("錄音已停止.錄音文件:"+AudioFileFunc.getWavFilePath()+"\n文件大小:"+mSize);
break;
case FLAG_AMR:
MediaRecordFunc mRecord_2 = MediaRecordFunc.getInstance();
mSize = mRecord_2.getRecordFileSize();
MainActivity.this.txt.setText("錄音已停止.錄音文件:"+AudioFileFunc.getAMRFilePath()+"\n文件大小:"+mSize);
break;
}
break;
default:
break;
}
}
};
class UIThread implements Runnable {
int mTimeMill = 0;
boolean vRun = true;
public void stopThread(){
vRun = false;
}
public void run() {
while(vRun){
try {
Thread.sleep(1000);
} catch (InterruptedException e) {
// TODO Auto-generated catch block
e.printStackTrace();
}
mTimeMill ++;
Log.d("thread", "mThread........"+mTimeMill);
Message msg = new Message();
Bundle b = new Bundle();// 存放數據
b.putInt("cmd",CMD_RECORDING_TIME);
b.putInt("msg", mTimeMill);
msg.setData(b);

MainActivity.this.uiHandler.sendMessage(msg); // 向Handler發送消息,更新UI
}

}
}

}

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