Oracle Study之--Oracle 11gR2通過RMAN克隆數據庫


Oracle Study之--Oracle 11gR2通過RMAN克隆數據庫

Purpose of Database Duplication

A duplicate database is useful for a variety of purposes, most of which involve testing. You can perform the following tasks in a duplicate database:

  • Test backup and recovery procedures

  • Test an upgrade to a new release of Oracle Database

  • Test the effect of applications on database performance

  • Create a standby database

  • Generate reports

Techniques for Duplicating a Database

RMAN supports two basic types of duplication: active database duplication and backup-based duplication. RMAN can perform backup-based duplication with or without either of the following connections:

  • Target

  • Recovery catalog

A connection to both is required for active database duplication.

Figure 24-1 shows the decision tree for the two duplication techniques.


Active Database Duplication

In active database duplication, RMAN connects as TARGET to the source database instance and as AUXILIARY to the auxiliary instance. RMAN copies the live source database over the network to the auxiliary instance, thereby creating the duplicate database. No backups of the source database are required. Figure 24-2 illustrates active database duplication.



     Oracle 11gRMAN duplicate 可以通過Active database duplicateBackup-based duplicate兩種方法實現。本案例使用的是Active database duplicate,對於Active database duplicate來說,在克隆數據庫時不用對Source備份,這對於大數據特別是T級別的數據庫來說優點非常明顯,復制前不需要進行備份,減少了備份和傳送備份的時間,同時節省備份空間。

    克隆數據庫一般是在不同的主機上來完成,本案例是測試環境,所以在一台主機上完成。
1、Source 庫信息
[oracle@rh64 ~]$sqlplus '/as sysdba'
SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.3.0 Production on Thu Mar 24 16:30:48 2016
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
16:30:48 SYS@ prod>select status from v$instance;
STATUS
------------
OPEN

16:31:12 SYS@ prod>select name from v$datafile;
NAME
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/system01.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/sysaux01.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/undotbs01.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/users01.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/example01.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/test1.dbf
6 rows selected.

16:37:41 SYS@ prod>select member from v$logfile;
MEMBER
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/redo03.log
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/redo02.log
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/redo01.log

16:38:43 SYS@ prod>show parameter name
NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_file_name_convert string
db_name string prod
db_unique_name string prod
global_names boolean FALSE
instance_name string prod
lock_name_space string
log_file_name_convert string
processor_group_name string
service_names string prod
2、構建測試庫:

1)測試庫目錄環境

[root@rh64 dsk3]# cd test1/
[root@rh64 test1]# ls
oradata  logs admin

2)生成測試庫pfile
[oracle@rh64 dbs]$ cat inittest1.ora 
*.audit_file_dest='/dsk3/test1/admin/adump'
*.audit_trail='db'
*.compatible='11.2.0.0.0'
*.control_files='/dsk3/test1/oradata/control01.ctl'
*.db_block_size=8192
*.db_domain=''
*.db_name='test1'
*.diagnostic_dest='/u01/app/oracle'
*.memory_target=319430400
*.open_cursors=300
*.processes=150
*.remote_login_passwordfile='EXCLUSIVE'
*.undo_tablespace='UNDOTBS1'
*.db_file_name_convert=('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/','/dsk3/test1/oradata/') ;如果源庫和目標庫在同一台主機,需要配置文件存儲路徑轉換參數
*.log_file_name_convert=('/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/','/dsk3/test1/logs/')
3)生成口令文件
[oracle@rh64 dbs]$ cp orapwprod orapwtest1

4)啟動Auxiliary Instance到no mount
16:52:01 SYS@ test1>startup nomount;
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area 521936896 bytes
Fixed Size 2229944 bytes
Variable Size 314575176 bytes
Database Buffers 201326592 bytes
Redo Buffers 3805184 bytes

16:52:13 SYS@ test1>show parameter name
NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
db_file_name_convert string /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/,
/dsk3/test1/oradata/
db_name string test1
db_unique_name string test1
global_names boolean FALSE
instance_name string test1
lock_name_space string
log_file_name_convert string /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/,
/dsk3/test1/logs/
processor_group_name string
service_names string test1
三、配置網絡Listener 和 tnsname由於Auxiliary Instance只能啟動到no mount狀態,所以需要在listener里配置Auxiliary Instance為靜態注冊,以便RMAN進行連接。1)配置監聽器
[oracle@rh64 admin]$ cat listener.ora 
# listener.ora Network Configuration File: /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.

LISTENER =
(DESCRIPTION_LIST =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = rh64)(PORT = 1521))
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC1521))
)
)

ADR_BASE_LISTENER = /u01/app/oracle
# 靜態注冊Auxiliary Instance:test1
SID_LIST_LISTENER =

  (SID_LIST =
    (SID_DESC =
      (GLOBAL_DBNAME = test1)
      (ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1)
      (SID_NAME = test1)
    )
  )

2)配置tnsnames
[oracle@rh64 admin]$ cat tnsnames.ora 

# tnsnames.ora Network Configuration File: /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/tnsnames.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.

PROD =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = rh64)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = prod)
)
)

TEST1 =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = rh64)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = test1)
)
)
3)查看listener信息
 [oracle@rh64 admin]$ lsnrctl status
LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on 24-MAR-2016 17:44:04
Copyright (c) 1991, 2011, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=rh64)(PORT=1521)))
STATUS of the LISTENER
------------------------
Alias LISTENER
Version TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
Start Date 24-MAR-2016 17:43:17
Uptime 0 days 0 hr. 0 min. 46 sec
Trace Level off
Security ON: Local OS Authentication
SNMP OFF
Listener Parameter File /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/rh64/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening Endpoints Summary...
(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=rh64.cuug.cn)(PORT=1521)))
(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
Services Summary...
Service "prod" has 1 instance(s).
Instance "prod", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "prodXDB" has 1 instance(s).
Instance "prod", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "test1" has 1 instance(s).
Instance "test1", status UNKNOWN, has 1 handler(s) for this service... ;;Auxiliary Instance靜態注冊后,狀態為“UNKNOWN"
The command completed successfully
四、配置RMAN克隆
[oracle@rh64 admin]$ rman target sys/oracle@prod auxiliary sys/oracle@test1
Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Thu Mar 24 17:07:38 2016
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.
connected to target database: PROD (DBID=305104131)
connected to auxiliary database: TEST1 (not mounted)

RMAN> duplicate database to test1 from active database nofilenamecheck;
Starting Duplicate Db at 24-MAR-16
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_AUX_DISK_1
channel ORA_AUX_DISK_1: SID=20 device type=DISK

contents of Memory Script:
{
sql clone "create spfile from memory";
}
executing Memory Script
sql statement: create spfile from memory
contents of Memory Script:
{
shutdown clone immediate;
startup clone nomount;
}
executing Memory Script
Oracle instance shut down
connected to auxiliary database (not started)
Oracle instance started
Total System Global Area 321507328 bytes
Fixed Size 2228024 bytes
Variable Size 230686920 bytes
Database Buffers 83886080 bytes
Redo Buffers 4706304 bytes
contents of Memory Script:
{
sql clone "alter system set db_name =
''PROD'' comment=
''Modified by RMAN duplicate'' scope=spfile";
sql clone "alter system set db_unique_name =
''TEST1'' comment=
''Modified by RMAN duplicate'' scope=spfile";
shutdown clone immediate;
startup clone force nomount
backup as copy current controlfile auxiliary format '/dsk3/test1/oradata/control01.ctl';
alter clone database mount;
}
executing Memory Script
sql statement: alter system set db_name = ''PROD'' comment= ''Modified by RMAN duplicate'' scope=spfile
sql statement: alter system set db_unique_name = ''TEST1'' comment= ''Modified by RMAN duplicate'' scope=spfile
Oracle instance shut down
Oracle instance started
Total System Global Area 321507328 bytes
Fixed Size 2228024 bytes
Variable Size 230686920 bytes
Database Buffers 83886080 bytes
Redo Buffers 4706304 bytes
Starting backup at 24-MAR-16
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=34 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
copying current control file
output file name=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/snapcf_prod.f tag=TAG20160324T175437 RECID=3 STAMP=907350882
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:07
Finished backup at 24-MAR-16
database mounted
contents of Memory Script:
{
set newname for datafile 1 to
"/dsk3/test1/data/system01.dbf";
set newname for datafile 2 to
"/dsk3/test1/data/sysaux01.dbf";
set newname for datafile 3 to
"/dsk3/test1/data/undotbs01.dbf";
set newname for datafile 4 to
"/dsk3/test1/data/users01.dbf";
set newname for datafile 5 to
"/dsk3/test1/data/example01.dbf";
set newname for datafile 6 to
"/dsk3/test1/data/test1.dbf";
backup as copy reuse
datafile 1 auxiliary format
"/dsk3/test1/data/system01.dbf" datafile
2 auxiliary format
"/dsk3/test1/data/sysaux01.dbf" datafile
3 auxiliary format
"/dsk3/test1/data/undotbs01.dbf" datafile
4 auxiliary format
"/dsk3/test1/data/users01.dbf" datafile
5 auxiliary format
"/dsk3/test1/data/example01.dbf" datafile
6 auxiliary format
"/dsk3/test1/data/test1.dbf" ;
sql 'alter system archive log current';
}
executing Memory Script
executing command: SET NEWNAME
executing command: SET NEWNAME
executing command: SET NEWNAME
executing command: SET NEWNAME
executing command: SET NEWNAME
executing command: SET NEWNAME
Starting backup at 24-MAR-16
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/system01.dbf
output file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/system01.dbf tag=TAG20160324T180122
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:01:45
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/sysaux01.dbf
output file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/sysaux01.dbf tag=TAG20160324T180122
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:01:35
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00005 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/example01.dbf
output file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/example01.dbf tag=TAG20160324T180122
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:55
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/undotbs01.dbf
output file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/undotbs01.dbf tag=TAG20160324T180122
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00006 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/test1.dbf
output file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/test1.dbf tag=TAG20160324T180122
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:07
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile copy
input datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/users01.dbf
output file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/users01.dbf tag=TAG20160324T180122
channel ORA_DISK_1: datafile copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03
Finished backup at 24-MAR-16
sql statement: alter system archive log current
contents of Memory Script:
{
backup as copy reuse
archivelog like "/dsk4/arch_prod/arch_1_32_893265808.log" auxiliary format
"/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch1_32_893265808.dbf" ;
catalog clone archivelog "/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch1_32_893265808.dbf";
switch clone datafile all;
}
executing Memory Script
Starting backup at 24-MAR-16
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archived log copy
input archived log thread=1 sequence=32 RECID=26 STAMP=907351568
output file name=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch1_32_893265808.dbf RECID=0 STAMP=0
channel ORA_DISK_1: archived log copy complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 24-MAR-16
cataloged archived log
archived log file name=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch1_32_893265808.dbf RECID=26 STAMP=907351572
datafile 1 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=4 STAMP=907351573 file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/system01.dbf
datafile 2 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=5 STAMP=907351573 file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/sysaux01.dbf
datafile 3 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=6 STAMP=907351574 file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/undotbs01.dbf
datafile 4 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=7 STAMP=907351574 file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/users01.dbf
datafile 5 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=8 STAMP=907351574 file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/example01.dbf
datafile 6 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=9 STAMP=907351574 file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/test1.dbf
contents of Memory Script:
{
set until scn 1471172;
recover
clone database
delete archivelog
;
}
executing Memory Script
executing command: SET until clause
Starting recover at 24-MAR-16
allocated channel: ORA_AUX_DISK_1
channel ORA_AUX_DISK_1: SID=18 device type=DISK
starting media recovery
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 32 is already on disk as file /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch1_32_893265808.dbf
archived log file name=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch1_32_893265808.dbf thread=1 sequence=32
media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:05
Finished recover at 24-MAR-16
Oracle instance started
Total System Global Area 321507328 bytes
Fixed Size 2228024 bytes
Variable Size 234881224 bytes
Database Buffers 79691776 bytes
Redo Buffers 4706304 bytes
contents of Memory Script:
{
sql clone "alter system set db_name =
''TEST1'' comment=
''Reset to original value by RMAN'' scope=spfile";
sql clone "alter system reset db_unique_name scope=spfile";
shutdown clone immediate;
startup clone nomount;
}
executing Memory Script
sql statement: alter system set db_name = ''TEST1'' comment= ''Reset to original value by RMAN'' scope=spfile
sql statement: alter system reset db_unique_name scope=spfile
Oracle instance shut down
connected to auxiliary database (not started)
Oracle instance started
Total System Global Area 321507328 bytes
Fixed Size 2228024 bytes
Variable Size 234881224 bytes
Database Buffers 79691776 bytes
Redo Buffers 4706304 bytes
sql statement: CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE SET DATABASE "TEST1" RESETLOGS ARCHIVELOG
MAXLOGFILES 16
MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
MAXDATAFILES 100
MAXINSTANCES 8
MAXLOGHISTORY 292
LOGFILE
GROUP 1 ( '/dsk3/test1/logs/''redo01.log' ) SIZE 50 M REUSE,
GROUP 2 ( '/dsk3/test1/logs/''redo02.log' ) SIZE 50 M REUSE,
GROUP 3 ( '/dsk3/test1/logs/''redo03.log' ) SIZE 50 M REUSE
DATAFILE
'/dsk3/test1/oradata/system01.dbf'
CHARACTER SET ZHS16GBK

contents of Memory Script:
{
set newname for tempfile 1 to
"/dsk3/test1/oradata/temp01.dbf";
switch clone tempfile all;
catalog clone datafilecopy "/dsk3/test1/oradata/sysaux01.dbf",
"/dsk3/test1/oradata/undotbs01.dbf",
"/dsk3/test1/oradata/users01.dbf",
"/dsk3/test1/oradata/example01.dbf",
"/dsk3/test1/oradata/test1.dbf";
switch clone datafile all;
}
executing Memory Script
executing command: SET NEWNAME
renamed tempfile 1 to /dsk3/test1/oradata/temp01.dbf in control file
cataloged datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/sysaux01.dbf RECID=1 STAMP=907351727
cataloged datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/undotbs01.dbf RECID=2 STAMP=907351728
cataloged datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/users01.dbf RECID=3 STAMP=907351728
cataloged datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/example01.dbf RECID=4 STAMP=907351728
cataloged datafile copy
datafile copy file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/test1.dbf RECID=5 STAMP=907351729
datafile 2 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=1 STAMP=907351727 file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/sysaux01.dbf
datafile 3 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=2 STAMP=907351728 file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/undotbs01.dbf
datafile 4 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=3 STAMP=907351728 file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/users01.dbf
datafile 5 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=4 STAMP=907351728 file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/example01.dbf
datafile 6 switched to datafile copy
input datafile copy RECID=5 STAMP=907351729 file name=/dsk3/test1/oradata/test1.dbf
Reenabling controlfile options for auxiliary database
Executing: alter database enable block change tracking using file '/dsk4/backup/block.trc'
ORACLE error from auxiliary database: ORA-19751: could not create the change tracking file
ORA-19750: change tracking file: '/dsk4/backup/block.trc'
ORA-27038: created file already exists
Additional information: 1
Ignoring error, reattempt command after duplicate finishes
contents of Memory Script:
{
Alter clone database open resetlogs;
}
executing Memory Script
database opened
Finished Duplicate Db at 24-MAR-16

五、驗證克隆
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

18:28:57 SYS@ test1>select status from v$instance;
STATUS
------------
OPEN

18:29:06 SYS@ test1>select name from v$datafile;
NAME
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/dsk3/test1/oradata/system01.dbf
/dsk3/test1/oradata/sysaux01.dbf
/dsk3/test1/oradata/undotbs01.dbf
/dsk3/test1/oradata/users01.dbf
/dsk3/test1/oradata/example01.dbf
/dsk3/test1/oradata/test1.dbf
6 rows selected.

18:29:13 SYS@ test1>select member from v$logfile;
MEMBER
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/dsk3/test1/logs/redo03.log
/dsk3/test1/logs/redo02.log
/dsk3/test1/logs/redo01.log

18:30:19 SYS@ test1>show parameter control

NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
control_files string /dsk3/test1/oradata/control01.ctl <span style="font-family: 宋體, Arial; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);">       </span>

-------- 至此,數據庫克隆成功 !                                     


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